Transition from Centralised Regime to Local Initiative
This case study compares two approaches which both contributed to the development of today's orchard-based agroforestry system: (1) Soviet approach- the previous state run dictorial system of the soviet times and (2) Farmer's initiative: the current bottom-up approach.
Farmers from the hilly Faizabad region with its deep and highly erodible loess soils had traditionally combined the cultivation of beans and wheat with fruit trees. In the 1980s the soviet administration decided to intensify apple production in this area and to establish orchards on large scale, making use of the ideal environment. The system introduced comprised densely planted pure stand orchards, mechanically constructed terraces (where the slope required this) and an irrigation system. Establishment was conducted through a top-down/authorisation approach and all inputs for implementation and maintenance were provided by the state. Farmers worked as employees on the state farms and received cash wages.
For more details consult page number 201 of the referral link.
Where the Land is Greener